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Lawrence A. Smalheiser











SUMMARY                                                                         14 PAGES













                                                                                    95 PAGES








Posted on the Internet in the Jewish Genealogy Website, was an article by George Arnstein titled “Publish Before You Perish”. He made the point that a genealogy is never finished because the genealogy is never ending. The family genealogy must be published at some time or it will be lost. His recommendation was to publish NOW and issue updates later, if you are still around to do so. By publishing now, some future person will be able to carry on the work and all the previous information will not be lost. That is what this is.


This is NOT one of those special and wonderful Newsletters written by Claire Javna. This is all the business of  genealogy information for use by the next family genealogist. This is not a Family History with many oral comments from family members. My writing style is not as good as Claire’s.


I plan to continue with my search for early family members and to update the genealogy with births, marrages and passing on of family members. There will be a time when I can not longer do so. I am publishing before I perish.


Enclosed in this package, is the family genealogy and my comments concerning what was done and learned. Two computer disks are attached. These disks will contain the genealogy in the form of a GEDCOM file used to transfer data between genealogy programs, my typed notes of microfilms and other information.. GEDCOM is in ASCII format on both disks. The other information will be in either WordPerfect 6.1 or in ASCII on separate disks..


I do not know when someone will be trying to use the information or disks. The WordPerfect text should be readable by standard word processing programs during the next 5 years. During the next 10 years, the disks should be usable in most computers and the ASCII readable. After that, who knows?


This material has been sent to you to use, to distribute or to pass on to others who may do the family genealogy. You become a partner in preserving our heritage. I suspect that there will be some 125 to 150 printed pages. I regret I cannot include the thousands of pictures and copies of original documents. My notes indicate where to find the documents. My children will end up with my pictures and documents.




Lawrence A. Smalheiser, July 1997






This document describes the status of the search to find the genealogy of the Jewish SCHMALHAUSEN family. A family genealogy is never complete. There are new marriages, new births, passing on of older members and records from the past become newly available.


The purpose of the data enclosed  is provide assistance (hopefully!) to some future person who is interested in searching out the family history. I plan to continue the search but there is not unlimited time. It is hoped that at least one of the the limited number of copies of this report will survive to help the next person. If you posses a copy of this document, please pass it along with your other treasured possessions.


Our earliest records of the family go back to about 1847. The name was SCHMALHOSEN at that time. About 1880 the name became SCHMALHAUSEN as family members migrated to the United States and Hungary. One group entering the United States in 1881, used the name SCHMALLHEISER. Another group, perhaps related, in Europe was named SCHMALHAUS. These variations have been considered to be merely the effect of the name being translated between Yiddish, Hebrew, German, Hungarian, Polish and English. We do not know what the name was before 1847. Surnames for all peoples became required during the period 1795 to 1810 depending on the area.


We know that in 1847 our family lived in Klasno, a Jewish village close to and later absorbed by the town of Wieliczka about 20 miles South East of Krakow. The nearby hamlet of Podlecz is also mentioned. The SCHMALHAUS family lived about 40 miles to the Northeast in Tarnow. When our family lived in Klasno, the area was a part of Galicia, an Austrian province. By 1886, all family members had moved away from the general area except one member who married and lived in Krakow and another who lived about 20 miles east of Klasno in the small village of Lakta Dolna. In 1850, the Klasno family was rather limited. This suggests that the family had come to this area from someplace else. We have not found that place yet, probably because we do not know at this time what the name was at that time.






Rita Smallheiser Gilbert is responsible for all this work being done. She was contacting all the family members she could find. One of my first cousins sent her to me. We met, and as they say, the rest is all family history. We deeply regretted the passing of Rita in 1995.


Claire Small Javna is responsible for writing and issuing many copies of the SCHMALHAUSEN FAMILY SOCIETY NEWSLETTER. These very well written newsletters were instrumental in awakening the interest of many people in the family history.


Paula Smalheiser Gervis and Claire were major figures in planning and holding most of the SCHMALHAUSEN FAMILY REUNIONS  thoughout the country.


Since most of my work was done in a Mormon Family History Center, I must thank them for providing access to microfilms of original records from the United States and Europe. There are more microfilms available of Jewish records for each of Poland, Hungary and Germany than any one person can read. New microfilms are continually added.


However, I must request that our family geneology NOT be posted in the Mormon Ancestral File or in their IGI (International genealogical Index). Posting our genealogies on either one might result in our ancestors being baptised into the Mormon religion. DON’T DO IT. IF OUR ANCESTORS HAD WANTED TO BECOME CHRISTIANS,  THEY WOULD HAVE DONE IT THEMSELVES.


I have posted our genealogy with AVOTAYNU, 155 N. Washington Ave, Bergenfield, NJ 07621-1742.  The data are to be moved to a new site and I will update it there. AVOTAYNU is The International Review of Jewish Genealogy.


Many others have been most helpful and I thank them all for their information and suggestions.





There are certain to be errors in my genealogy records. I will be happy to make corrections if you bring them to my attention. You may have to correct them yourself.


When Rita Smallheiser Gilbert and I met for the first time in about 1987, I had been retired after a career as a research chemist. A genealogy research is very similar to chemical research. Learn the topic, access the information and keep notes. My father’s brother Eli Smalheiser had assembled the entire family of his siblings, their children and their grandchildren in one booklet. It was a treasured possesion of all of us that had a copy. It made for an easy start for me. I also had double motivation. My paternal grandfather was Lazar Schmalhosen and my maternal grandmother was Kate Schmalhausen Konter. They were brother and sister.


The process of gathering a family genealogy can be explained by following back a paper trail to the country of origin. Use U.S. Census records, Naturalization papers, Passenger lists (Hamburg passenger lists are very good in giving the town of origin). Then do the vital records for the town or county or country of origin. That is all there is to it.


I obtained records from New York City Archives. Most of my work was done at the Emerson  Family History Center (a Mormon church in NJ). There I obtained about 700 rolls of microfilm (over time) and searched for our family in the United States and Europe. My typed notes (on the floppy disks) indicate which records were found and copied. In addition, names that might be ours were also recorded. The family genealogy was recorded in a genealogy program, Personal Ancestral File (PAF) Version 2.31 sold by the Mormons. One of the many subsidiary programs written to access data from PAF is Pafability. A 95 page copy is enclosed. Films can be searched for in a Family History Center on the computer or on fiche. Fiche are slower to use but you are less likely to miss a desired film.


Below I give: 1. Comments on family surnames and given names.

                      2. Where we looked,  why and what we found.

                      3. What should be done next.




Our European family name was SCHMALHAUSEN, SCHMALHOSEN and/or SCHMALHAUS. One family member used the equivalent SCHMALLHEISER on arriving in the USA in 1881. The name  SCHMALHAUSEN is found in The Netherlands, Germany and Russia. It is not a widely popular name and, for the most part, all those with that name appear to be Christians. The earliest found reference to the name SCHMALHAUSEN is a student from Hessen, Germany  matriculating in the University of Rostow in about 1603.

Two known German Christian SCHMALHAUSEN people migrated to the U.S. One arrived in 1834 and ended up in Southern Illinois. His descendants have spread around and one, King Schmalhausen (in Southern Illinois), is doing their family genealogy. King seems to have adopted two of our Jewish family tinsmiths. The other was Herman Schmalhausen who lived in Hoboken, NJ and ran a business in NYC from about 1875 to 1924 when he and his wife died without descendants.


There are also SCHMELHAUS from Bohemia that migrated to the U.S. These seem to be Catholic. Of course, others remained in Bohemia but it was not possible to learn much about them.


The numbers of SCHMALHAUS are much fewer. One married couple did migrate to the U.S. from Germany  but nothing is known about them.


What does our name mean? I don’t know. SCHMALHAUS means a short or narrow house. SCHMALHAUSEN implies some female descendency with the same meaning. SCHMALHOSEN suggests short pants. SCHMELHAUS may be SCHMALHAUS changed due to a local dialect. On the other hand, the word “hausier” is German for a pedlar. Herman Schmalhausen had a store selling buttons and beads - small parts. There was also a Schmalhausen Company in Berlin selling sewing supplies. Some of our family were pedlars. Does this make sense? Maybe.


The fact of the matter is that our name in 1845-50 was Schmalhosen. What was it before that and where?



Customs of giving first names vary widely. The Sephardic Jews (from Spain) give the names of living grandparents to newborn. The Ashkenazi Jews (from Germany and other parts of Eurpope) use the names of deceased people. Some use the names of deceased family members, some use names of any recently deceased person, some use the names of deceased famous persons/Rabbis. In some cases, the given Hebrew name and the secular (common)  name really used are different.


We learned of the name of Nathaniel because it appeared on the gravestone of Abraham, his son buried in Budapest. The problem is that in the first three generations following our first known family member, Nathaniel, only one person was named after him. At least four were named SAMUEL in these three generations. The earliest SAMUEL was born in 1851. For comparison, Nathaniel’s son, Morris, died about 1880 and 5 people were named after him in the next generation (and many more in later generations).


Nathaniel would have been born in the period 1780 and 1800. If his father was Samuel, he would have been  Nathaniel ben (son of) Samuel or if his father was Nathaniel and his name was Samuel, he would be Samuel ben Nathaniel. Could there have been some confusion about given names with the newly mandatory surnames?

The one person in the first four generations with the Hebrew name, Nathaniel, was my father, Sander Smalheiser. The Hamburg Passenger List shows his name as Schamu Schmalosen. His script U.S. passenger list was not clear but there was a typed entry of “SAMU” which is a diminitive for Samuel. His Naturalization Papers give the name as Sander. His 1921 Jewish Marriage Certificate has the name  Alexander. My Jewish Marriage Certificate shows his name as Nathaniel. My father’s older brother had two given names and it is possible that my father had two also.


Now we have to wonder why more people were not named Nathaniel. If we disregard the possibility that Nathaniel and Samuel were equivalents for the same ancestor, then we have to look for another reason. There are possible reasons and these are not too good. They involve divorce, abandonment, bad behaviour or suicide. We don’t even know the name of Nathaniel’s wife. My guess, based on the frequency of one family female name, is that her name  was Gitel, Golde or Gertrude.


There is still another possibiliity about Nathaniel. He may have been a Christian Schmalhausen who married a Jewish woman. Her children were raised as Jews (and he, indeed,  may have become a Jew). His wife’s father may have been Samuel which is why that name was chosen so frequently. While the Tarnow records are very sparse, there is recorded the death of Schaul Schmalhaus at the age of 65 in the year 1842. No birthplace, parents or wife are recorded. The fact of the matter is that the Schmalhausen/Schmalhosen/Schmalhaus name has been found no where else in the Jewish Records before 1870.


While we are on the topic of possible misfits in the family, we must understand that most branches have one or more persons like that. Relatives are not too happy to reveal the family secret and, indeed, there is no reason to seek it out. When I come to such a person, I inquire and if there is obvious discomfit I back off. He/she is entered in the family genealogy but no details or comments are documented.



I started with NYC Jewish Cemeteries and found the burial sites of most of our family. The NYC Passenger List Soundex began in 1897 and became more thorough in 1903. Members of our family that could be found were located and their passenger lists copied. The Hamburg Passenger list was examined and passenger lists for those that left by that route were copied. New York City birth, marriage and death records were searched. Naturalization records were obtained. Not every record was completely legible. All desired records were not found. There were disappointments. I could not obtain my mother’s  (May Konter Smalheiser) birth certificate from New Brunswick, NJ or the marriage certificate of her parents in NYC in 1890 (or a few years on each side).


I then moved the search to Europe armed with the information in the found documents. There were only military records for Wieliczka. There were 4 microfilm rolls for Tarnow but the records were sparse with not much more than names and dates. Initially Jewish Krakow records started about 1800 and ended in 1879 with the first member of our family being born there in 1880. Several years later an addditional 5 or 6 years of Jewish Krakow records with our family members became available. Vienna, Hamburg, Budapest Jewish records were searched. The Vienna records gave us the names of 3 relatives. Budapest gave us the marriage records for one branch of the family and the fact that the daughters were born in Wieliczka or Klasno. Immigration records showed one relative going to Hamburg to work. A Zemplen County (Hungary) Census 1869 provided us with information concerning one relative and the family he married into. We did a number of these census but there are about 190 microfilm rolls just for Zemplen County. We also did a number microfilm rolls of the Hungarian Census for 1828 without any real findings. There was also a lot of “scatter shooting” in Jewish records of towns in the hope that the family would show up. Only one provided a family member.


The first member of our family to arrive in the U.S.A. was Meyer Schmalhausen, son of Raphael. He arrived in early 1881 and his wife, Hannah Riegelhaupt * from Nowy Sacz, arrived later in the year with their 4 children. [Note: Records confirmed with Passenger Lists are indicated with an *.]The second member of the family to arrive was Joseph Schmalheiser (Izsak or Ignac Schmalhoze in the 1869 Hungarian Zemplen Varanno Census) in 1881. His wife, Hannah Samuelovics * , followed him in late 1881 with one infant. The following year two of their children *  came over followed by two more * in the next year. Joseph’s sister, Sara *  (later Lena), came over in 1884 from Klasno. His brother, Raphael * (later Philip), came over in early 1886 from Klasno. His sister, Gitel * (later Kate) and his mother, Rachel * , came over together in 1886 from Klasno.  Cwettel (wife) and the children of Samuel Schmalhosen of Krakow came over: Morris *(1899), Izig *(1907), Kiewe (Jerome) *(1910),  Saul *(1921), Cwettel* (1905, 1921). The children and wife of Lazar Schmalhosen of Nagy Bosko, Hungary came over: Morris * (1910), Sander * (1913),  Elias * (1914 and sent back, 1920), Goldie and Philip * (1921), and in 1923 *, Regina (wife), Max, Bertha, Simon, Louis, Beatrice, Frank, Irving and Raymond.  The children of Zev Schmalhausen came over: Samuel (1900?),  Regina * (1902), Chaim * (1907). The descendants of Abraham Schmalhosen left Hungary in the 1940's. Some came to the U.S.A.


In the same fashion, there are U.S. Naturalization, Birth, Marriage and Death records. See my “Filmnotes” on the floppy disks for further information.


It should be noted that I tried to stay with the SCHMALHOSEN / SCHMALHAUSEN family line and not dilute my efforts with the genealogies of all the people that married into the family. However, we must also keep in mind that, under normal circumstances, we should have many other relatives from the siblings and cousins of Nathaniel, whatever their names are.


Perhaps we could find the family beginnings by following family members as they traveled in Europe. Maybe they were traveling to their ancestral home. One family member went to the City/State of Hamburg to work as a tinsmith in about 1881. Another family member went all the way to Varanno, Zemplen, Hungary to learn the tin smith trade in about 1869. Two unmarried female members had their children in Vienna (Hanni, 1876 and Theresa, 1899). A married female Schmalhaus (married name: Speer) from Tarnow died in Vienna, 1915. One family group went to Budapest. The son of another married in a small town South of Budapest. One married and settled in Nagy Bocsko, Marmarosch County in Hungary


Hamburg had many people named Nathan (surname or given), even at least one person named Nathan Nathan. There were many years of Jewish records available going back to about 1780. No one named Nathan, Nathaniel or Samuel had the known children of our second generation. The parents of the unmarried mothers in Vienna could not be identified. The first mother died within a year of the birth of her child. The child from the second died shortly after birth and we lost track of the mother. We should question why they went that far away to have their children. Another unmarried female, daughter of Morris and Rachel, had her child in Krakow in 1883. Her surname was given as Schmalhaus at the birth and when the child died a few months later, it was named Schmalhosen.


Varanno is special. Our family member married the daughter of the master tinsmith. Their family name was Samuelovics (son of Samuel). Our family member’s maternal grandfather was named Izsak Berger. There were Bergers in Tarnow and there was an Izsak Berger in Varanno who married in 1858 (again?) at age 52. Children were born in Budapest (about 1877) to fathers named Berger or Burger who were born in Varanno. An Izsak Berger died in Budapest in 1878 with the birth date somewhat different from the one who married in Varanno. Surprisingly, there were not that many people named Burger or Berger and there were very few Izsak Bergers


Another interesting aspect appeared in Varanno. There were two families named Samuelovics. The births of the children in the “other’ family were recorded in the Jewish records. Our Samuelovics family had no birth entries in the Jewish records. These records were prepared for the civil government. They are not Synogogue records. (This is true about most Jewish records available at the Mormon Family History Centers.) The father of our Samuelovics family said (1869 Zemplen Census)  he was born in Varanno (about 1806). Why are the birth records for the children of our Samuelovics family missing? Varanno was a small town. How could the birth records be missing? Was this a common situation?


A similar situation arises with Zev Schmalhausen. He lived in Lakta Dolna, about 20 miles East of Wieliczka. His son Samuel came to this country about 1900 but no passenger list was found. Zev had married Sarah Sternlicht. The nearest Jewish records were for the town of Wisnitz. There were no Sternlicht listed there. However, when additional Krakow films were made available, the father of a child born in Krakow was a Sternlicht born in Wisnitz.


Claire Small Javna and her Samuelovics cousin, Lenore Kramer, went with their husbands to Europe in 1994. They went (together or singly) to Presov, Prague, Varanno, Budapest and other places. They examined Jewish records in Presov. In under two years, these records became available at the Family History Centers.


It is my best guess that our family was Austrian. This is a large area. In 1878, the Austrian Empire included: Austria, Austria-Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Venice, Lombardy, Croatia, Dalmatia, Galica, Bukovina and a few other entities. Now parts of these places are in Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Russia, Italy and Romania.



In the United States, the family name has changed a lot over 100 years. Until recently there was one of our family Schmalhausen in Brooklyn. Some others that had that name changed it to House. Schmalheiser was in use until recently. It became Smalheiser, Small, Hauser and House. Of course, there are also the many surnames of men that married family females.



We have found many records for known members of the family. U.S birth, marriage and death certificates were found as well as passenger lists with our relatives. If they left Hamburg, they were found there. If they arrived in New York City after 1897, they were found there. Not everyone was located in the passenger lists. The U.S. Census for 1890, 1900 and 1920 were used to find further information. Rachel Schmalheiser was found in the 1910 census (for which there was no index) and we learned from her entry that she had given birth to eleven children of which seven were still alive. At that time, we knew of only five.


A previously unknown branch was found. In 1902, a Regina Schmalhosen arrived in NY Harbor going to her brother-in-law Lieb Lamdek in NYC. She was detained a day or so until her brother from Chicago picked her up. She was followed  in 1907 by her brother, Chaim Schmalhausen. He was going to Samuel in Chicago. This branch of the family came from a small village about 20 miles East of Klasno. The father of all three was Zev (or Wolf) Schmalhosen. His wife was Sarah Sternlicht. Samuel married the daughter of his mother’s sister in Chicago. Oral history said that Samuel lived in NYC for a while before going to Chicago. When he went to Chicago, he had a saloon and later became very successful in the real estate business. This branch of the family was not known when we started. There have been continuing comunications with some of that family including the last of Samuel’s five daughters. She has become ill recently. We have not been successful yet in locating the Lamdek family and another daughter of Zev. A descendant of Samuel found a copy of his 1929 Obituary. It said he had a brother and three sisters in Europe.


This “new” branch provides something additional in names. Samuel was born in 1880. His first daughter was named Gertrude (as was his sister Regina’s). His first and only son was named Morris although he was known as Maurice. These are our familiar family names although they seem to be one generation out of synch.. Chaim eventually changed his name to Leo.



As this is written, microfilm records for many places of interest to us are missing. Some are being microfilmed by the Mormons, some records have been lost forever and some are stored in archives in Europe waiting to be found. I believe that there are many Jewish records in European libraries and  archives storage for the place that was Galicia. I see three possible routes: A.) Wait for the records to be filmed by the Family History Centers, B.) Go to Europe and read all the original records and C.) Hire a genealogist to find the records. (The going rate today is about $800 per day.) I think we have to wait because we really don’t know the name we are searching for or in what town or province we should search. There were many Jewish communities in Austria itself for which no microfilms are currently available.


It is also quite possible that I have already “found” Nathaniel our ancestor but I did not realize that he was ours. If so, the Filmnotes should have a comment for all possible people.


I avoided dealing with Russian records. While I could deal with German, Hungarian and Polish languages, the Russian language is very difficult for me. The Russian records are becoming more available and these should be evaluated. I have not even approached South American or South African Jewish records. Many Jewish families migrated to these countries. I suspect that the Tarnow Schmalhaus family migrated there because, except for one who died in Vienna, none have shown up anywhere else.


I have sampled birth records from about 1826 Warsaw. These were not good records. About 50% of the births were recorded as multiple births, probably to hide the birth of sons. Their surnames seemed to be not the surname of the father or the mother but of the midwife. Some records from France were also done. These were two microfilm rolls of marriages 1883 - 1892. Oral history suggested that Lazar, son of Morris and Rachel, visited Paris where his picture was taken. Some of the 6 sections of the city were to have most the Jewish population but Jewish names like Levy were present in each section. The main problem here is that we don’t know what name we are looking for. Besides something like Schmalhausen, it could be a Berger or Leiner (Lazar’s maternal grandparents) or he might have been visiting a married sister with some name we never heard of.


Good Luck!







         TOPIC                                                                                         LOCATION



                          USA PHILADELPHIA AND CHICAGO                             FILM_A2.USA


SECTION B      NATURALIZATION RECORDS USA                                FILM_B


SECTION C      PASSENGER LISTS  USA                                                  FILM_C1.USA

                                                               Hamburg                                           FILM_C2 EUR



                                                                                    European                      FILM_D2.EUR


SECTION E      EUROPEAN RECORDS POLAND                                     FILM_E1.POL

                                                                    HUNGARY                                 FILM_E2.HUN

                                                                    BUDAPEST                                FILM_E3.BUD

                                                                    MISC.                                         FILM_E4.MIS.


SECTION F      INDIVIDUAL PEOPLE                                                        FILM_F


SECTION G      MISC.                                                                                   FILM_G


SECTION H      PLACE LOCATIONS                                                          PLACES_H










Changes to the Family Genealogy are continuous. The data presented in the Pafability printout and data on the disks have changed since they were prepared. Updated data (hopefully correct) is included on this page.


Each person is identified by a Record Identification Number (RIN) as well as by their name. Following are the changes that must be made to all the data. Reference lines to aid in locating the people involved will have an asterisk (*) in front and at end of the line.


*Parents RIN 5 Kate Schmalhausen and RIN 9 Isadore Kontrowitz*

RIN 14 Philip Konter Died 19 July 1997


*Parents RIN 30 Max Smalheiser and RIN 54 Anna Liebowitz*

RIN 58 Sandra Ruth Smalheiser Died in 1992


*Parents RIN 216 Phylis Konter and RIN 217 Lonnie Baker*

*RIN 210 Keri Pamela Baker*

RIN 901 Mark Andrew Touby (husband)


*Parents RIN 91 Maxwell Smallheiser and RIN 92 Helen Bromberg*

*RIN 99 Sandra Smallheiser*

RIN 895 Zane Steinberg (husband)

RIN 896 Diane Steinberg (daughter)

RIN 898      Schoenbrun (husband)

RIN 897 David Steinberg (son)

*RIN 100 Hal Stevens (changed from Smallheiser)*

RIN 891 Patricia Parker (wife)

RIN 892 Haley Lynn Stevens (daughter)

RIN 893 Seth Asher Stevens (son)

RIN 894 Ethan Aaron Stevens (son)


*Parents RIN 77 Elaine Gould and RIN 190 William Herdes*

*RIN 193 Jonathan Herdes*

RIN 899 Jennifer Hernandez (wife)

RIN 900 William Herdes (son)



Attached here are copies of six typical documents found. They are in a foreign language and as you may expect from 100+ year old documents, sometimes hard to read. Most of my copies are full page copies. The ones here have been compressed a bit to allow for binding. Some contain a second page which was not copied since there was little of interest. Each copy is lettered as below.


Not all records are easily read, or to put it another way, not all scribes had good handwritting.



A.  The 1876 Vienna Jewish Death Record for unmarried Hanni Schmalhosen who died 10 months after the birth of her child. Hanni was born in Klasno in 1847. Her parents are not identified.


B.  The 1880 Krakow Jewish Birth Record for Morris Schmalheiser. He was known to my parents as Cousin Morris and as Big Morris to others. He was a very quiet dignified gentleman..


C.  The 1881 Hamburg work permit for Rafael Schmalhosen. It shows he was born in Klasno and entered the city three times. In this country, Rafael changed his name to Philip Schmalheiser and  moved to Savannah, Georgia before 1900.


D.  The 1886 Budapest Jewish Marriage Record for Chaja Schmalhosen, daughter of Abraham Schmalhosen. It shows she was born in Klasno  26 years earlier.


E.  The 1886 Hamburg Passenger list for Rachel and Gitel Schmalhauser leaving Hamburg for Liverpool in the Indirect passage to the United States. A second ship was boarded in Liverpool. Gitel changed her name to Kate in this country and she is my maternal grandmother.


F.  The 1915 Vienna Jewish Death Record for Jetti Speer, born Schmalhuss,  in Tarnow, Galicia. The Jewish records from Tarnow did not have a record of her but a Speer family did live there also. Jetti was shown (on the second page) to have been born in 1838.  There were only a few sparse records for the Schmalhaus family in Tarnow.


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